Joint Tenancy in California: What Could Possibly Go Wrong?

Almost all homes, as well as other assets, owned by spouses in California are held in joint tenancy. Joint tenancy is a form of ownership where everyone on title owns 100% of the subject property. Generally speaking, as people die, the "last man standing" is the individual who will own the asset outright. Because nothing formal needs to be done, for many people this looks like a nifty way to avoid a California probate as well as the need for estate planning in California. Pretty smart right? Well, not exactly …

While it's true that joint tenancy might avoid a probate and could alleviate the need for some estate planning, everyone should understand the risks involved with holding Joint Tenancy assets, especially in California. Some of the risks are obvious while others are shockingly subtle. Below, I've grouped the risks into three major categories, starting with some of the more well known problems and then discussing some of the less obvious fiascos that California joint tenancies create:

Problem # 1 – Who will be the ultimate owner of joint tenancy assets?

Most of the time, the "final" owner of joint tenancy property is a spouse (when title is solely held by a husband and wife). But after both spouses pass away, the question remains: who inherits then? If no estate planning is carried out before the death of the surviving spouse, joint tenancy assets will pass through "intestate succession" (ie how the State of California guesses you would have wanted it to pass). If you have the "Wally Cleaver" family this may not be an inheritance problem, per se, because the asset will be split and eventually distributed to the children of both husband and wife. Of course, there will likely be a long and costly probate court proceeding to make that happen but at least the assets wind up in the "right" hands.

So under the best case scenario, assets might pass the way parents want, but it will cost a significant amount of money and take (typically) one to two years in California. But what happens if we tweak the facts a little and / or the family dynamics are not perfect?

Answer: All sorts of wild things. And how often do these problems really occur? Answer: A lot.

For example, if a child predeceases a parent in California, and that parent held her house in joint tenancy with her son and daughter, that asset will end up 100% in the hands of the other surviving child, while cutting out the grandchildren of the first predeceased child. Most parents cringe at the thought of unintentionally cutting out legitimate heirs.

Another unintentional result occurs when a spouse or child is holding property in joint tenancy and then the child gets sued (because of a car accident, bankruptcy, etc.) and that creditor ends up attaching the property that mom or dad believes they are solely owned. In other words, holding assets in joint tenancy gives potential creditors of your beneficies the right to seize your assets! Obviously, this is a horrible result when it happens.

Actually, what occurs even more often than the "unintentional" transferences mentioned above are the intentional transfers. These occur most often when there are children of a prior relationship involved or a surviving spouse simply getting remarried at some point. In these situations, it is frequently the case that the "survivor" of the original joint tenancy leaves those (joint) assets to a new spouse (It is interesting to note that this could happen intentionally or inadvertently when new spouses create yet another joint tenancy ). Another common result occurs when the survivor of joint tenancy property, leaves those assets to their children from a prior relationship, instead of to your biological children.

Estate planning attorneys are well aware of the problems encountered above because these occurrences happen frequently in California. But what about some of the less obvious problems …

Problem # 2 – Tax Issues!

The interplay between the death and income tax systems is tricky when it comes to how title to property is held. This is especially true in California as well as a few other community property states. You see, when spouses hold property in joint tenancy in California and one of them passes away, there is only a step-up in tax basis on the false persons half of estate assets under IRC section 1014. That means, there is still a lot of potential tax owed by the surviving spouse on those assets. (Conversely, when the same assets are held in a living trust in California, there is a 100% step-up in tax basis on 100% of all capital assets owned; meaning there will be no tax owed when a surviving spouse goes to sell them.) Sometimes couples who held real property in joint tenancy are "saved" by IRC section 121 for quick sales of a principal residence-this is the potential exemption available when people live two out of the past five years in their home. In these situations, the survivor can get a $ 250,000 step-up in tax basis. However, this safety net only applies to a principal residence and not any other assets (ie, a second home, stock, etc.). But oftentimes, even with the possibility of using both IRC sections 121 and 1014, there is still not enough to save a surviving spouse from crushing taxes.

To illustrate the problem above, I will tell you about a real life example of a person who got used in the crosshairs of a California joint tenancy, lack of a stepped-up basis and large capital gains taxes. In this persons case, along other assets, he and his wife held two homes in joint tenancy. She passed away in January of 2014 and he sold one house in late 2014. He also had the second home up for sale in 2015 because he could no longer live there. Prior to filing his 2014 tax return, he decided to set up a California living trust. Through this process, the difference between tax basis, California community property ownership, joint tenancy ownership, and his current tax ramifications were explained to him. As the realization set in that he owed an intense amount of tax – tax that was totally unnecessary to trigger – he was not happy, to say the least. The reason he now owed extra tax was because he and his wife bought both properties for relatively little and held them in California joint tenancies. Upon her passing, her half of the properties were stepped-up, while his half was not. On the first sale, even with one-half of each home receiving a stepped-up basis, the sale of his half of the home created a huge tax burden for him. He was able to use his IRC section 121 exclusion to help make up some of the difference and that definitely helped. But even with the half step-up in basis, plus his $ 250,000 IRC section 121 exclusion, he still owed quite a bit of tax. To make matters worse, he could not live in the second home and if he went through with his proposed sale, he was going to face even much worse tax ramifications. So, instead of paying tens of thousands of dollars of yet even more tax, he was forced into holding the second home (and paying property taxes, insurance, upkeep, etc.) for a minimum of two more years in order to hopefully capture another IRC section 121 exclusion. And he was lucky! Had he not quickly consulted with a tax professional, he would have additionally lost out on the second exclusion. Please note that all of this may be a bit confusing but the point is that if he and his wife had not held the properties in California joint tenancies, and instead, held them in a California living trust, he would have owed zero tax. But in an effort to save a few dollars on estate planning, these joint tenancies in California cost him dearly.

Amazingly, the problem would be much worse if a parent (instead of spouses) tried to use joint tenenses instead of a trust in California because almost 100% of the time, the protection afforded under IRC section 121 would not be available. Still, the issues caused by California joint tenancies in these first two categories of problems pale in comparison to the dilemmas that arise in the following situations …

Problem # 3 – The minority, yet HUGE elder law issues which California joint tenancies cause.

This category of problem is especially noxious both because few people understand the relationship between California joint tenancies and California elder law, and also because of the extent of damage that that lack of knowledge causes. You see, in the past, most people have been focused on the question of what happens to their stuff when they die, while completely ignoring the question of what happens to their stuff if they live?

What's the difference? Confused? Why does it matter you ask? Answer: It matters because in California, seniors can receive Medi-Cal or Veterans Pension Benefits (under the right circumstances) to pay for long term skilled nursing care. And receiving these government benefits just might stop of bankruptcy. But for those who failed to do any estate planning and are holding onto joint tenancies, government benefits may not be available.

In order to understand why the above is true, it's important to understand California elder law. California elder law however, is extremely complicated. But again, a real life example can help explain the elder law / joint tenancy issues more clearly. In this case, a wife and her husband held their primary home in joint tenancy in California. They also held all of their liquid accounts in joint tenancy. And in addition, they recently began construction of a retirement home, which they held (you guessed it) in joint tenancy. The joint tenancies seemed like a good transfer plan to them, until the husband suddenly and out of now suffered a debilitating brain injury. After months in the hospital (which Medicare covered), the hospital kicked him out and into skilled nursing care. The cost of skilled nursing was, and is, $ 880 / day. Although the first few days were covered by Medicare, some simple math revealed that in less than four years both husband and wife would become bankrupt. What's worse, is that none of them had any estate planning in place. This means that she had no authority to do anything with his half of their assets. Furthermore, because the houses are held in joint tenancy, she can not do anything meaningful with her half of those properties! That's because she simply has no authority to act for him, which as a consequence of joint ownership means that she also has no power over her half as well. (In theory, she could try to sell her half, but who is going to buy of of a house?) Thus, as long as the homes remain jointly owned, she has no ability to control the economic value of the homes. Thus, she is unable to borrow against the home (s) if a loan is required for their maintenance and support (or, in this case, for the retirement home to be fully built in the first place). And she is unable to sell either home to raise funds to pay for the care her husband so desperately needs (not to mention future care that she may need).

If they had had their assets in a trust, or at least, had had really good elder law powers of attorney, she could now do protection planning for their assets and in the process avail her husband of Medi-Cal (California's version of Medicaid) . But they did not do that and can not now do it, after husband's brain injury. Thus, those California joint tenancies literally left her in quicksand. Put another way, she can do nothing but let the half-built house rot, while her husband is stuck in expensive skilled nursing care.

But there must be some solution you wonder? Well, sometimes people will petition a court under a "3100 Petition" to beg a judge to let her "gift" his half of the assets to her, to help them both stave off bankruptcy. But there is no guarantee that a judge will rule in her favor. In fact, in Los Angeles where she is located, there is a good chance that a judge will not allow her to do this. Judges in Los Angeles are simply not so sympathetic to these situations.

So what are her options? She can do nothing and if she dies before him (the result that nobody ever thinks of, but happens sometimes), the family assets will be 100% his (under joint tenancy law) and it is likely that their entitlement estate will end up paying for his care, leaving nothing to show for a lifetime of hard work. On the other hand, if he dies first, she will be able to do some planning after the fact, but she will face all the same tax issues above as well as possibly being stuck with his large medical bills.

Since the aforementioned cases are pretty horrible, if her 3100 Petition is not approved, she will be forced into petitioning for a regular probate court conservatorship for her husband. This should allow her to get out of the quicksand and act (a little). But the problem is that simply opening a conservatorship will not allow her to effectively preserve family assets. In other words, in this situation, she is looking at hundreds of thousands of dollars wasted, both in terms of lost Medi-Cal as well as conservatorieship legal costs.

Any way you slice it, her joint tenancy assets are going to cost her dearly. The only question is to what extent the damage will be? This is the reason older law and joint tenancies in California are especially dangerous. At least in the first two categories above, just a persons heirs hopes are programmed. But in these elder law situations, California joint tenancies could literally leave their owners broke!

The moral of the story: if people engage in regular estate and elder law planning, instead of trying to avoid planning by using California joint tenancies, they can achieve all their goals without losing part, or all, of their assets to taxes and long term care costs.

New book can help you improve your relationships

Have you ever wondered what the other person thinks after this first date? Are you pretty losers? What do women really want? I could read what experts have to say about these issues or pick up the latest Cosmo number. Kat Bourgeois's new book, What could he be thinking? It adopts a different approach through the interview with people from all over the country.

Bourgeois went to the field to ask people like you and me these questions and more. He asked the Texas plumber, the Delaware waiter, that Georgia's teacher asked about love, dating and relationships and put them in a curious and easy-to-read format. The answers were often reduced to the heart of the matter. How does the relationship between men and women affect ambition? "Men are intimidated by the feminine ambition." It says, Esther, CEO of Houston, Texas. I also found myself laughing many of the answers. Bourgeois asks: most men will avoid marriage if they could not have the benefits of sex and the company without it? Cynthia of Kansas says: "Hell yes, men will avoid marriage as the plague. It is a necessary evil they have to face."

If you've loved that John Gray's men are from Mars, women are from Venus, then Bourgeois's book is for you. Find out which men will really change women and what will women change over men (is it really the toilet?).

I recommend this book whether married or single. Married couples will find information about what your spouse might really be thinking about your relationship. I definitely picked up some ideas on how I can improve my marriage. Singles will surely benefit from the questions and answers of the appointments. I will receive copies for my adult children to read.

Kat Bourgeois is well qualified to write this book. She is fascinated by the way people interact with each other. Kat has helped hundreds of people create the career of their dreams and create relationships that enrich their lives.

Source by Rick Rodgers

Presumption of Undue Influence in California Dissolution (Divorce) Cases

The presumption of undue influence in California dissolution (divorce) cases is the topic of this article. The presumption of undue influence is due to California Family Code Section 721 (b), it arises whenever any interspousal transaction advantages one spouse over the other. It is also applicable in California legal separation cases as well.

The confidential relationship between spouses imposes a duty of the highest good faith and fair dealing on each spouse, and neither may take any unfair advantage of the other. See Family Code Section 721 (b).

While the general rule in California is that record title determinates ownership, that is not always the case as will be shown in this article.

In a case decided by a California Court of Appeal, the Court of Appeal stated that the trial court properly placed on former wife the burden of proving that a transfer of the former husband's separate ownership of certain property to joint tenancy was not the product of undue influence; the presumption of undue influence under Family Code Section 721 in interspousal transactions that advantage one spouse to the disadvantage of the other prevails over the presumption under Family Code Section 2581 that property acquired as joint tenancy by a married couple was community property.

Another California Court of Appeal has stated that in a divorce proceeding, where the common law presumption of title, and the community property presumption of undue influence conflict, then the presumption of undue influence prevails. And the same Court of Appeal also stated that when there is a presumption of undue influence, the burden is on the advantaged spouse to prove the transaction was freely and voluntarily entered into with full knowledge of all relevant facts and a complete understanding of the effect of the transfer. And if the advantaged spouse does not meet their burdens of proof then the disadvantaged spouse is entitled to a set-aside of the transaction, effectively defeating the record title.

Clearly, anyone involved in a divorce in California, who previously signed an interspousal quitclaim deed transferring ownership of any real property to their spouse, or any other document which transferred ownership of any other property including personal property such as vehicles, etc., to their spouse needs to consider whether the presumption of undue influence is appropriate in their case. If so they should request that the Court set aside the interspousal transfer. The request could have been made by an Order to Show Cause or Notice of Motion.

To view the Family Code Sections cited in this article, or any other code sections in California visit the website below.

The author actually sees you you have enjoyed this article and found it informative.


Stan Burman

Studying abroad, drainage of the brain

Foreign education and drainage of the brain

Some students prefer to continue their education in another country for different reasons. They may want to learn the language of the host country, learn the primary resources of resources at hand, or they may have political and social problems in their country that will allow them to go to another country to study (brain drain). Or the reason may be familiar with the culture of other countries; In fact, in the era of globalization, this impulse of cross-cultural culture has been reinforced. People are aware of the facilities in other countries or strong points in a special scientific field and start to get that knowledge.

In some countries, there are consultants of foreign students that have communication with different universities in some countries and that give students information about the course, the payment, the scholarships and help to make them Application buyers and guide on the visa process. Therefore, the tendency to find the right university has been easier.

In the United States, the first foreigner study began in 1923. Professor Raymond W. Kirkbride, instructor of the Department of Modern Languages ​​of the University of Delaware, offered his plan to the president of the university. His plan, Delaware Foreign Study, was accepted and, at a time when America liked staying isolated, eight students were sent to France to study.

Starting this moment, student delivery has continued in different ways. One way is Winterim or the winter session, in which the student participates in the educational program in a short period between the autumn and spring semesters. Study duration may vary from one week to an entire academic year. Today, students from the United States prefer the United Kingdom to study in other countries and then in Italy and Spain.

On the other hand, joining the states is the main host for foreign students. "It has the largest student population in the world, with about 600,000 students who choose to expand their education and life experience in the United States. Almost 4% of all students enrolled in higher education are international students and numbers are growing. " However, the rate of acceptance of US students has changed over time and has not always been steadily growing.

For example, after the September 11 attacks on the Union Trade Center, the restrictions and limitations imposed on the issuance of student visas, especially in Arab Muslim countries, diminished the number of # 39; students. In the scope of elevation of students from suspicious countries, most Muslim and Arab countries, a proposal was presented to the congress that "restricted the eligibility for student visits.

On the other hand, those who study there were problems with the return of universities, even some of them forced to leave their studio. These restrictions were implemented while the large student visa forms a small percentage of people who enter all of the United States. Therefore, difficult measures against students seem irrational in some way.

Moving away from education in the United States may have other reasons, apart from interests. Many students and scientists from other developing countries prefer to remain in America and continue their scientific work due to social and political problems in their countries. This growing tendency is known as brain drain. "The term originated around 1960, when many British scientists and intellectuals emigrated to the United States to achieve a better working environment."

It can be simply defined as the massive immigration of technically qualified people from one country to another country. "Cerebral meltdown can have many reasons, such as the political instability of a nation, the lack of # 39 Opportunities, health risks, personal conflicts, etc. The brain meltdown can also be called "human capital flight" because it is similar to capital flight, which involves massive migration of financial capital . "

Examining the reason for the brain drain in different areas has given rise to different causes. For example, in the "Middle East", the lack of some basic facilities and services are the reasons for mass migration in these areas.

In Asia Unemployment, the explosion of the population and corrupt political systems are the main reasons for the migration of skilled workers in this area.

In countries like India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, graduates, postgraduates, experienced and skilled professionals do not get enough opportunities to develop and succeed. So with the dreams of development, these professionals leave their native country to look for a better future. This brain drain is a great loss for these developing countries. "Like the African continent," according to a survey, Ethiopia lost 75% of skilled workers in 1980-1991. "

Studying in another country can be a good way to get acquainted with other cultures far from learning specific knowledge. Therefore, if each country provides employment opportunities for these graduates and benefits their welfare, they will benefit from sending their students instead of losing ones. Graduates with a broad attitude, knowing experiences from other nations, and other experiences such as self-sufficiency, a result of life, apart from the family, could probably think, manage and manage the work of # 39 ; a better way

Source by Fatemeh Vafaeezadeh

Payroll California – Unique Aspects of California Payroll Law and Practice

The California State Agency that oversees the collection and reporting of State income taxes deducted from payment checks is:

Employment Development Department

800 Capitol Mall

Sacramento, CA 95814



California requires that you use California form "DE 4A-4, Employee's Withholding Allowance Certificate" instead of Federal W-4 Form for California State Income Tax Withholding.

Not all states allow salary reductions made under Section 125 cafeteria plans or 401 (k) to be treated in the same manner as the IRS code allows. In California cafeteria plans: are not taxable for income tax calculation; are not taxable for unemployment insurance purposes. 401 (k) plan deferrals are: not taxable for income taxes; are taxable for unemployment purposes.

In California supplementary wages are taxed at a 6% flat rate, 9.3% for stock options and bonuses.

You are not required to file California State W-2s.

The California State Unemployment Insurance Agency is:

Employment Development Department

PO Box 826880 – MIC 94

Sacramento, CA 94280-0001



The State of California taxable wage base for unemployment purposes is wages up to $ 7000.00.

California requires Magnetic media reporting of quarterly wage reporting if the employer has at least 250 employees that they are reporting that quarter.

Unemployment records must be retained in California for a minimum period of four years. This information generally includes: name; social security number; dates of hire, rehire and termination; wages by period; pay pay periods and pay dates; date and circumstances of termination.

The California State Agency charged with enforcing the state wage and hour laws is:

The Department of Industrial Relations

Division of Labor Standards Enforcement

PO Box 420603

San Francisco, CA 94142-3660


The provision in the law for minimum wage in the State of California is $ 6.75 per hour ..

The general provision in California State Law covering paying overtime in a non-FLSA covered employer is one and 1/2 times regular rate after an 8 hour day, 40 hour week in most industries. Check for other overtime rules and exemptions ..

California State new hire reporting requirements are that every employer must report every new hire, rehire and contract who is paid over $ 600.00. The employer must report the federally required elements of:

  • Employee's name
  • Employee's address
  • Employee's social security number
  • Employer's name
  • Employers address
  • Employer's Federal Employer Identification Number (EIN)

Plus date of hire; state EIN; date, dollar amount, expiration date of contract.

This information must be reported within 20 days of the hiring or rehiring; or after $ 600.00 minimum is met or contract is signed whichever is earlier.
The information can be sent as a W4 or equivalent DE34 by mail, fax or electronically.
There is a $ 24.00 to $ 490.00 penalty for a late report in California.

The California new hire reporting agency can be reached at 916-657-0529 or on the web at [].

California does allow compulsory direct deposit but the employee's choice of financial institution must meet federal regulation E regarding choice of financial institutions.

California does not allow compulsory direct deposit

California requires the following information on an employee's pay stub:

Employee's Name
Pay rate
Gross and net earnings
Amount and purpose of discounts
Hours worked or work done if piece work

California State Wage and Hour Law provisions concern pay stub information information must be on the paystub.

  • Gross and net earnings
  • Hours worked at each hourly rate for hourly workers
  • Piece rate and number of pieces
  • Deductions
  • Pay period dates
  • Employee's name and social security number
  • Employer's name and address

In California employees must be paid at least semimonthly, monthly for FLSA exempt employees. The lag time between earned and paid is governed by statute in California. Wages earned from the 1st through the 15th of the month must be paid by the 26th. Wages earned from the 16th through the end of the month must be paid by the 10th of the following month. Exempt employees by the 26th of the month for the entire month (a safe harbor is payment within 7 days after the pay period.)

California payroll law requires that involuntarily terminated employees must be paid their final pay immediately; within 72 hours for seasonal employees; within 24 hours for certain motion picture (by next payday if laid off) and certain oil drilling employees. Voluntarily terminated employees must be paid their final pay within 72 hours; immediately if 72 hours' notice of quit is given; strikers on next regular payday.

Deceased employee's wages to a maximum of $ 5,000.00 must be paid to the surviving spouse or conservator when an Affidavit of right and proof of identity are presented.

Escheat laws in California require that unclaimed wages be paid over to the state after one year.

The employer is further required in California to keep a record of the wages abandoned and turned over to the state for a period of seven years.

There is no provision in California law relating tip credits against State minimum wage.

In California the payroll laws covering mandatory rest or meal breaks are a 30-minute meal break after five hours; 30 minutes after 10 hours; 10 minute rest after four hours.

California law relating record retention of wage and hour records is two years ..

The California agency charged with enforced Child Support Orders and laws is:

Department of Child Support Services

PO Box 944245

Sacramento, CA 95244-2440


www, childsup, / default.htm

California has the following provisions for child support discounts:

  • When to start Withholding? 10 days after service
  • When to send Payment? Within 7 days of Payday.
  • When to send Termination Notice? When next payment is due
  • Maximum Administrative Fee? $ 1 per payment.
  • Withholding Limits? 50% of disposable earnings.

Please note that this article is not updated for changes that can and will happen from time to time.

New Jersey Camping & You: Perfect together

I ask this question almost every day and I am quite tired of this after all these years. So I'll answer this question right here for the last time.

There are literally hundreds of reasons to go camping in New Jersey, but there is a big one, and I mean a great reason:

Where else in the country can you drive less than 3 hours and go from the mountains, to the shore, to the swamps, to three different metropolitan areas in several important lakes and in all intermediate places?

Camping in New Jersey is literally the best of all worlds. There is nothing you can not do while capsizing in New Jersey. You have the possibility of choosing from more than 120 campsites and facilities in the state park to choose from thousands of hectares of public land to explore.

Almost each of the private campsites in the state has craft activities, swimming pools, fishing ponds, sports activities and so many other services that I can not even count on. Most of them are clean, modern and suitable for any type of camping. All of them are at a decent driving distance from dozens of cultural, sporting, historical, recreational and related attractions for children.

You can also find canoeing, hiking, cycling, bird watching and unlimited leisure activities in the campsites throughout the state and many places within walking distance of the car of some of the attractive premiums of l & ### State and the fabulous beaches and strolls of the Atlantic Ocean.

New Jersey is literally a kaleidoscope of natural and scenic landscapes full of some of the best and exciting experiences of camping anywhere in the northeast of the country. Personally, I think camping here in New Jersey is so good, if not better, after any part of the country.

More than 25,000 rental booths / yurts / trailers await your visit, places of all shapes and sizes that can accommodate campers with everything, from store locations to emerging windows to fully-equipped vehicles.

From the Delaware Water Gap to the rooms of Pine Barrens on the sandy beaches of Jersey Shore, in view of the Statue of Liberty, the ideal camping experience is nearby.

No matter what type of camping you choose, tents, rental rentals or cabin rentals, New Jersey has something for you. Choose a region to start investigating where you want to camp:

Atlantic – It's not surprising that the Atlantic region is one of the most popular tourist destinations in the country. Atlantic City and its famous beach and seafront, luxury casino, game action, the best animators, the best in quality dining and sporting events. New Jersey camping in the Atlantic region gives you access to this great area!

Delaware: that's where the story was made. And where nature regulates. It is where the arts live and reign stately mansions. The Delaware River Region of New Jersey is all that and more. It is a unique region that can provide you with many things to do and see on the next vacation. Campground New Jersey and you, perfect together!

Gateway: Live with action, the Gateway region has everything for your perfect vacation, including the activities of New Jersey Camping, New Jersey State Parks and New Jersey Campgrounds.

Ribera: mention the Ribera region, and some voices immediately to mind: more than 60 miles of unspoilt sandy hook beaches to Holgate; sailing on Seaside Park; maybe some bodysurfing off Bay Head; or maybe a walk through the moon at Surf City. Anything you want can be found in New Jersey camping.

Skylands – Soft mountains. Skiing Rock climbing. Horse riding Do you think you're in New Jersey? Campground New Jersey and you, perfect together!

Southern Shore: walk to 30 miles of wide sandy beaches. Experience the warmth of a Victorian inn. Take a walk in history or enjoy the fresh reward of the sea in a gourmet restaurant. Campsite New Jersey offers a wide variety of ways to take advantage of this area.

So, if it is a cabin for a lake, one minute RV of the Statue of Liberty or just a sleeping bag in the midst of a wild desert, the Camp de Nova Jersey is perfect for you

Source by Eric Stephenson

The game of illegal sports betting is a great business. Will it finally become legal? Supreme Court to decide

Regardless of the sports season in which we are, you probably have a favorite sport that you like to follow. Perhaps the university madness of madness in March, the NFL, baseball, hockey, golf or soccer. Maybe you would like to make a small bet, but many sports fans in the United States are aware of the legitimacy and legality of online gaming. If you live in the United States, your legal betting options in brick and mortar casinos are limited to Nevada, and to a certain extent on Delaware circuits.

The Supreme Court has heard arguments about a New Jersey challenge that would allow sports to play at its casinos and racecourses. If the court decides in favor of New Jersey, gaming experts predict that most states will jump into the cart to legalization, in order to fill state taxes with fiscal revenues.

If you are not familiar with the details about how to bet on sports, the following describes how everything works:

Jargon sports betting

Before entering the details, here is a small explanation of the jargon to help you understand the process:

  • Action – A term for all bets that occur during an event.
  • Manage – The total amount of money bet by the events.
  • Spreading – Give one of the two teams points even for betting action.
  • Sports books – Establishments that opt ​​for sports events.
  • Juice – A percentage of the victory taken from one coach He won a bet of money even. Sometimes he is called Vig, which is short for vigorous

Type of bets

There are many different types of bets. Too much, football is taking more advantage action with the largest manage The Super Bowl only gets more than 100 million dollars in legal bets and more than three billion (that is, one billion with a B!) illegal bets Now you see that the states want a part of the action.

  • Even money bets – Players bet on a single team to win one. The sports book carries it juice / vig of the amount of winning payment. A common one vig It's $ 11 for $ 10. (Bettor pays $ 11, he earns $ 10). The house saves $ 1. Most bets will have one diffusion of points (line). If the player is choosing contempt, S / he will have points. If the coach is choosing the favorite, S / he is putting (giving) points.
  • Parlay betting – Betting on multiple (two or more) teams to win. Here's a scenario a diffusion of points Ticket Suppose that in # 1 event, Tampa Bay plays Green Bay with GB favored to win at least 3 points. In event # 2, Buffalo plays Miami i BUF It expects to win at least 7 points. The game ticket would look like this:

Visitor of events Vs Home

1 TB GB. -3

2 BUF. -7 MIA

This means that if you make a bet GB they have to win more than 3 points. A bet BUF I would oblige them to win more than 7 points. When choosing the favorites, you are putting (giving) points. If you were to put the money GB i MIA, you would be taking (receiving) the points.

One way to eliminate confusion is to score a distribution score before the games begin. for example in this ticket:

The score before the game starts is:

  1. TB 3 GB 0
  2. MIA 7 BUF 0

When you finish the games, simply give points to contempt. In most jurisdictions, the ties are lost to the player. In other jurisdictions, the payment of the prize for a tie is reduced to the next lower payment factor. A common play in casinos is a choice for four teams 10X the bet. Get $ 10, earn $ 100, but you can bet from two to twelve games. The more games you have, the more profits will be the gains.

  • More / Less – One of the scenarios is to bet that the final score is more or less a pre-established number.
  • Near Bets – A proposal bet is where you can predict the result of a pre-established number of accessories in a single ticket. Example: field targets total upper / lower than 4. Total interceptions higher / lower than 3. Total sacks higher / lower than 2. Total receiving yards, total yards, and the list goes on and on.

If you visit Vegas or other jurisdictions that allow you to make sports betting games, Good Luck!

Source by Dennis J Occhino

History of the California King Bed

The California King Bed is a relatively modern addition to homes across the globe. Beds have been created and recreated ever since humans first needed a place to rest their heads. By the 1960s though, humans were no longer creating beds of leaves and twigs to place on the forest floor. They weren’t stuffing mattresses with hay, either. Humans began to crave luxury, and by this time, the fortunate could afford it too. So how did we get here? How did beds go from dirt to huge, soft sleeping places?

The Bed’s Humble Roots

The very first beds were little more than leaves, animal skins, and whatever else our primitive ancestors could find. Eventually, however, as human beings became less nomadic, beds developed into structures that kept people off the ground. The first “lavish” beds were the beds of Egyptian Royals. Long stone staircases lead to these beds, which were often shrouded by sheer curtains. These ancient beds even had pillows and possibly the first headboards. The Egyptians made the bed a place of luxury as did the Greeks. In Homer’s famous epic, The Odyssey, Odysseus, a king, builds his wife a beautiful, jewel encrusted bed. Even in these ancient times, royalty slept in lush and ostentatious beds.

The Kings and Queens of California

Just like the towering beds of the ancient Egyptians, the California King Bed was designed for the elite. These “elites,” were far different from the pharaohs, though. In the 1950s, the king sized bedstead was sold as the largest bed on the market. In the 1960s, this newly adapted California addition was born. Los Angeles furniture companies crafted these gigantic beds specifically for celebrities. These huge bunks, a full 4 inches longer than the king, were perfect for taking up space in the enormous mansions of famous celebrities. They acted as a status symbol of luxury.

Everybody’s a King

Today you don’t have to be rich and famous to have a bedstead fit for a king. In fact, since the 70s, these large beds have become a popular piece of furniture in homes across the globe. European variations, the Eastern king bedstead and the western king bed, even became popular during the 70s and 80s as private mattress companies transformed the mattress for international sale. If you need a little extra room for your feet, or if you simply want a bed fit for a king, the California king bed could be just what you need.

Hiring the best insulation business

A home can be confused through the proper isolation. Even an old house can be made more energy efficiently increasing the amount of insulation. You can enjoy a comfortable indoor climate in a well-insulated home. You can do some research to find the best foam insulation business in Delaware or New Jersey.

You can rent the best foam insulation business in Delaware to meet your insurance needs. You can take some things into account before selecting the best contractor for foam insulation.

First you have to check wherever the potential contractor is fully insured and licensed. Having an updated license will be a great help, as it can allow you to make improvements to your current home. Also the insurance that it maintains must be on par with the standards of the industry. If you have any questions related to them, you can delete them in advance.

You can also try to find out if the company name is online. In this way, you can find out any insufficiency or complaint filed against the company.

You should make it a point to select only certified and trained installers in DE, since this can provide an additional level of insurance. Preferably the foam insulation installers in New Jersey should have been trained directly by the manufacturer.

You can also try information about the company's history, how long you have been in the business, etc. This can help you hire the best company because, without a proven track record, companies can not succeed. The experience will be a better reference in the selection of a company than any reference or research.

You can select an aerosol foam insulation company that has additional specialists to handle the necessary equipment. Since the isolation installation process can be tricky, having a team specialist can be a good point of sale. You are sure you will be satisfied with the results by hiring someone who has a thorough knowledge of the commercial procedures and the handling of the equipment.

Those who are the types of DIY can easily buy small foam recipients in the home improvement store. These can be used to seal cracks and gaps around the doors and windows and around the accessories. It is better to look for the services of a professional isolation company for large-scale insulation projects. Although it is more expensive to install spray foam insulation compared to fiberglass, you can save large amounts of money in the form of repair and utility bills. Make your home comfortable and healthy through spray foam insulation today. Finding the contractor for proper spray foam insulation is just one click away!

Source by Kavin Langer

California Attorney Fees

When can you recover attorney's fees on a judgment, or when you attempt to recover a judgment? Only when the judgment or a court confirms that you can. What if the lawyer's fees were not specifically granted on the judgment, though an award of the counselor's fees was stated in your judgment?

One of many sentence articles: I am a Judgment Broker, not a lawyer, and this article is my opinion based on my experience, please consult with a lawyer if you need legal advice.

I am not an attorney, and my opinion is that since your judgment allegations the recovery of lawyer fees, and if the contract the lawsuit was based on, allows for the recovery of such fees and costs, or if there is a law specifically authorizing the recovery of attorney fees; then you can include those costs on a memorandum of costs.

If, however, you have a judgment that awarded lawyer fees, however the lawsuit was not based on a contract that specified the post-judgment recovery of such fees; then I think you might need to win a noted motion to add your lawyer fees to the judgment. In the rare event that such fees are predetermined by law, a noticed motion may not be necessary. Make sure you act before your judgment is fully satisfied.

In some courts, you can only add attorney's fees, if they are added within 10 days of the judgment's entry. Otherwise the creditor must file and serve a new lawsuit case for their lawyer fees and lawsuits costs.

In California, when it comes to including post-judgment lawyer fees on a MC-12 memorandum of costs, CCP 685.070 states what costs may be included on the MC-12 form.

CCP 685.070 (a) item 6 states that lawyers' fees are permitted, if they are allowed by both CCPs 685.040 and 1033.5. If you have a justification that awards such fees as per these two CCPs, then include your post-litigation lawyer fees on your memorandum of costs. The most relevant part of CCP 1033.5 states that such fees may be authorized by either contract or statute.

CCP 685.040 states: The judgment creditor is entitled to the reasonable and necessary costs of enforcement a jurisdiction. Attorney's fees incurred in enforcing a judgment are not included in costs collectible under this title unless otherwise provided by law. Attorney's fees incurred in enforcing a judgment are included as costs collectible under this title if the underwriting sentence includes an award of attorney's fees to the judgment creditor pursuant to subparagraph (A) of paragraph (10) of subdivision (a) of Section 1033.5.

A case within an anti-slap motion that focuses on lawyer fees is: Lucky United Properties Inv., Inc. v. Lee, (2010) 185 Cal. App. 4th 125. Another relevant case is Jaffe v. Pacelli, 165 Cal. App.4th 927 (2008).